To reduce the fire hazard of building materials and structures developed and successfully used special methods and means of fire protection of wood and other materials. In a professional environment, they are divided into fire active and passive. Active means of fire protection of wood used for fire suppression (fire extinguishers, warning systems, etc.). The so-called passive means of fire protection applied to prevent fires, then there is a preventive measure. Passive funds are divided into structural and chemical.
Structural fire protection funds to lay the building design stage. These include the building facing structural insulating materials, heat-reflecting device screens, an increase in cross-sectional designs, plastering using shotcrete. Fire protection of wood and construction of a performed most often with the help of fire-retardant treatment (chemical means of fire protection tree). There are many types of flame retardants – it paints, varnishes and enamels, coatings and coating, impregnation. Quality fire protection wood most often carried out by means of impregnation.
Fire retardant wood primers should have certain characteristics to ensure proper fire protection of trees and buildings from it. Impregnation for fire protection of timber must have the characteristics of the following 1. Possess a high degree of fire-resistance rating. According to GOST 16363-76 for fire-resistance rating for wood impregnation are divided into two groups: first and second. Each structure is assigned a specific group after the laboratory tests. During these tests the composition of the processed sample under test (after pre-weighting) in a special chamber exposed to a gas burner for 2 minutes. After the test sample is weighed again, if weight loss does not exceed 9%, the flame retardant include the first group of fire-resistance rating. If the sample has lost more than 9% but less than 25% – can be attributed to the composition of the second group. If the sample timber has lost more than 25% of its mass – the composition does not provide fire protection on the wood.