When this happens, the gerund is equivalent to a pure adjective or an adjective specifying proposition (who sang). The gerund used this way is incorrect, because it should always possess verbal and adverbial value. In the following sentences can see clearly the adverbial and verbal value of the gerund: scrubbing dishes, explained what happened. Arriving home, agreed. This type of error is corrected by substituting an equivalent adjectival proposition the gerund. Usually by that + the verb in a personal way.
Examples: Women singing down the supply. who sang several children suffering strong pains arrived that day. they suffered the law raising taxes is not fair. that raises exceptions: burning and boiling gerunds can be used with purely adjectival function: several Plains burning could be seen far away. The pot of boiling water spilled you. Gerunds can also be used with adjectival function in titles of works, paintings and photographs feet: Caesar crossing the Rubicon. The frogs asking for a King.
The Director hoisting the flag. The gerund with adjective value, mean, which refers to a noun, a verb of perception (verb that can be seen or perceived action) must be: look, see, look, observe, etc. Eg.: She, contemplating the landscape, started to cry. Sometimes, in addition to function purely adjective, the gerund expresses permanent action: she is a Secretary speaking three languages. General comment: if correctly used, the gerund is you can replace, generally, for a personal form of the verb preceded by while, while, at the same time that, at the same, as that one once, after that, etc. Incorrect gerunds: corrections: Retrate my dog running in the garden. which ran wrote a story narrating an impressive event. which recounts the car slowed, stopping several meters below. and stopped myself with peasants being poor. they are yesterday we saw your brother running in the Park. which she ran is a Secretary knowing translate. you know the problem, discussed reaching an agreement. and are He arrived he handed a trunk containing lots of clothes. which contains saw the lion out of the mount. which was leaving salomando men were walking toward the village. that salomaban this is for the children living in misery. living crashed a truck resulting injured three people. and entered to the room sitting in the first row were. and sat the law raising taxes is not fair. climbing saw your brother walking in the Park. which walked discussed three articles approving them at the end of the session. and approved them sold school notebooks taking beautiful pictures. They have the plane plunged to Earth killing all passengers.